Gleanings: On Apples, Terroir, and Newark Cider.

Trained&PrunedAppleTreeNewark Cider .

Gleanings: On Apples, Terroir, and Newark Cider.

Concerning Newark’s famous old time cider the following specific information on the ingredients thereof will be new and of interest to many readers. Our informant was the late John Oakes of Bloomfield. He said some time ago:

“Quite a large portion of the land in Bloomfield in the last century, the eighteenth and the first third of this the nineteenth, was in farms. They were small, comparatively few of more than fifty acres. The farmers raised on the land rye, oats, Indian corn, potatoes, and buckwheat; very little wheat and hay. They had large orchards of apples for making cider which under the name of ‘Newark cider’ was known over a large extent of country, shipped to the South, as well as to points in these parts. It was celebrated as the best. It was made the best from two kinds of apples mixed, two-thirds being Harrison apples, which were small and a light yellow color, a little tart and very juicy; and one third being the Canfield apple, large, red and sweet, both seedlings having originated here.”

Thus Newark cider was the product of Newark fruit and Newark invention. -JFF

Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Volume 3 . New Jersey Historical Society, 1918 – New Jersey.

Trained&PrunedAppleTree

And this from: History of Essex and Hudson Counties, New Jersey, Volume 1. Everts & Peck, 1884 – Essex County (N.J.)
“The apple was planted extensively soon after the settlement, on a wide range of the cleared land.  As early as 1682, Governor Carteret, writing to the proprietors in England said
“At Newark is made great quantities of cider, exceeding any that we have from New England, Rhode Island or Long Island”.
The high quality of Newark cider has been maintained from then until now.
The red clay soil, the debris of the red sandstone, has been congenial to the growth and fine quality of the apple and pear; in fact there is no part of the State of New Jersey where fruit is superior to that grown in the county of Essex, and where the soil has been properly tilled and fertilized, agricultural products have always met the expectations of the cultivator.”
Trained&PrunedAppleTree

And from: The Western Agriculturist, and Practical Farmer’s Guide. Robinson and Fairbank, 1830. Nicholas Longworth Esq. – of the famed Catawaba wines of Ohio, a man considered the father of American grape culture – writes that the Harrison, Campfield, and Graniwinkle

“are the apples from which the celebrated Newark cider is made.”

Longworth experimented growing Harrison and Virginia crab apples in Ohio for cider, but he failed to achieve a wholly successful result, and details his effort thus:

“I obtained from Newark, New Jersey, many years since, some trees of the Harrison apple from which their celebrated cider is made. The cider I made from them was aqueous and seldom retains its sweetness till the proper season for bottling.

The best Newark cider is made on the Newark mountains on a poor stony soil.

On a recent visit to that state I particularly examined this apple in their orchards to endeavour to ascertain the difference. I found the apples knotty, and of a less size than the same fruit in the West, unfit for the table but evidently possessing more of the saccharine principle. The Virginia crab retains all its fine cider qualities with us in great perfection. No soil, no climate. no cultivation can make it edible. To reconcile these apparent contradictions writers have furnished us with no clue and we must endeavour to deduce them from analogy and reason.”

Trained&PrunedAppleTree

Proceedings Of The Farmers Club

APPLE GRAFTS

Mr Daniel B. Bruen, Newark, N. J. now brought forward a of cions of the apple, and read in connection therewith a report, of which the following is the substance:

This is the Harrison apple; its origin is in Orange, Essex county, N. J. and named after Simeon Harrison, owner of the farm. It is the most celebrated cider known. It bears large crops, fruit small. Eight bushels produce one barrel of cider; it is very rich in saccharine matter. This, the Campfield apple, has its origin in Newark, named after Matthew Campfield, one of the first settlers of Newark, almost universally used in the proportion of one-third with the Harrison in manufacturing the celebrated Newark cider. The fruit is rich in saccharine matter, and keeps well until spring; good for cooking, very little better for table use than a well-soaked cork from cider bottle.

Annual Report of the American Institute, of the City of New York. American Institute of the City of New York, 1869.

Resources: 
Search books.google.com and archive.org for more interesting cider and pomological information.

Observations on Cider. No. 265. 1867.

cropped-observations.jpg

No. 265.

Observations on Cider.

From the great diversity of soil and climate in the United States of America, and the almost endless variety of its apples, it follows that much diversity of taste and flavour will necessarily be found in the cider that is made from them. To make good cider, the following general, but important, rules should be attended to. They demand a little more trouble than the ordinary mode of collecting and mashing apples of all sorts, rotten and sound, sweet and sour, dirty and clean, from the tree and the soil, and the rest of the slovenly process usually employed ; but in return they produce you a wholesome, high-flavoured, sound, and palatable liquor, that always commands an adequate price, instead of a solution of “villanous compounds,” in a poisonous and acid wash, that no man in his senses will drink. The finest cider was made of an equal portion of ripe, sound pippin and crab apples, pared, cored, and pressed, etc., with the utmost nicety. It was equal in flavour to any champagne that ever was made.

Title: Six hundred receipts, worth their weight in gold : including receipts for cooking, making preserves, perfumery, cordials, ice creams, inks, paints, dyes of all kinds, cider, vinegar, wines, spirits, whiskey, brandy, gin, etc., and how to make imitations of all kinds of liquors : together with valuable gauging tables : the collections, testing, and improvements on the receipts extending over a period of thirty years.

Author: Marquart, John  1867

Publisher: Philadelphia : J.E. Potter

via internetarchive.org

Read online: https://archive.org/details/sixhundredreceipt00marq

Cider Review: Etienne Dupont Cidre Bouché Brut de Normandie Organic 2011: Tasting Journal: Cider52

DupontOrganic

Cider: ETIENNE DUPONT CIDRE BOUCHE´ BRUT DE NORMANDIE ORGANIC 2011

Thoughts On A Bottle: Tasting Journal:

Review Note: Solo tasting. Team tasting review to follow.

In The Glass: Slight POP on opening. Pale, light medium golden with tinges of green and amber. Clear, bright, with miniscule bead, minimal mousse. Aromas of yeast, raw and cooked apple, orchard, sous bois, and tannins. Tastes of red and green apple skins, a tad meaty, band-aid, wet grass, woody, green notes, bark, slightly leathery. Sweetness – caramel, toffee, raisins, warm sugars, honey. Celery, rhubarb, herbal. Sweet and bitter notes, light tannins, not much acidity.

2nd glass: Mineral notes, wet stones. Slate-y, green, moss, deciduous trees, mown hay. Tidal flats, hint of salt, a bit floral, freesia. As bottle warms up acidity is more apparent – now showing some legs/tears. Far off hints of pine, cedar, bark. The green woody notes cut the sweet, sugar, apple, and honey.

More: Resin, freesia, honey, butter, spice.

Empty glass: Honey, wet tanned hides, damp straw. Visible sediment.

Temperature definitely affects experience of cider. As bottle warms up more flavor and aroma qualities are apparent.

Future tastings should utilize beverage thermometer to test temperature of cider being reviewed to see how variations in temperature affect how cider is experienced.

Pairings – The Tasting Lab: None.

Overall Impressions: Sweet grass. Passing pleasing bitter notes. Intriguing perfume. Damp hay and barnyard. Resin, freesia, honey, butter, salt and stones.

Cider: ETIENNE DUPONT CIDRE BOUCHE´ BRUT DE NORMANDIE ORGANIC 2011

Maker: Domaine Dupont

Origin: Normandy, France  website: www.calvados-dupont.com

Importer: B. United International, Inc. website: www.bunitedint.com

ABV: 4.5%  Bottle: 750 ml, champagne cork

Style Notes:  USDA Organic. Unfiltered and unpasteurized. Made with naturally occurring yeasts. The fermentation is controlled by successive racking. Bottled between May and April. No sulfites added.

Fruit: Apples. 100% organically grown apples of the Bisquet, Joly Rouge, Douce Coet and Binet Rouge variety.

Makers Fruit Notes: The apples and the techniques used to make the cider are in conformity with American standards relating to organic agriculture, “N.O.P. Organic”. The apples are entirely untreated.

Note: Domaine Dupont labels each bottling with vintage year.

Makers Notes on Terrior:

www.calvados-dupont.com/en/orchards

The poor soils of the Pays d’Auge region, consisting of marl and chalky marl of the Oxfordian (secondary era) limit the growth of the trees and this leads to the production of small apples. The aromatic intensity is thereby increased and the ratio of skin to pulp helps to favour the extraction of tannins. Nitrogenous fertilisers (which swell the fruit by water retention) are not used – giving priority to quality rather than yield.

From Wikipedia:

Marl: Marl or marlstone is a calcium carbonate or lime-rich mud or mudstone which contains variable amounts of clays and silt. The dominant carbonate mineral in most marls is calcite, but other carbonate minerals such as aragonitedolomite, and siderite may be present. Marl was originally an old term loosely applied to a variety of materials, most of which occur as loose, earthy deposits consisting chiefly of an intimate mixture of clay and calcium carbonate, formed under freshwater conditions; specifically an earthy substance containing 35–65% clay and 65-35% carbonate.[1]  

  1. Pettijohn (1957), p. 410.

If you have tasting notes to add please leave a comment.

Nomeclature and Regional Expression: Pomme de Fer & Red Winter Pearmain

POM00002970PommedeFerCaliforniaImages of (4) different apple specimens from the NAL Library USDA Pomological Watercolor Collection

4 specimens

Collected from 3 locales in 3 States:

California, Vermont, Maine

From 3 different North American growing regions

Nomenclature: Pomme de Fer and Red Winter Pearmain

“An interesting little apple, to which I may draw your attention later in the report on new fruits, is this 
Pomme de Fer, literally the Iron apple, which originated in the Province of Quebec. It is a small dark apple and keeps easily until June.” 1
 
“Nevertheless Quebec has enriched American pomology by the gift of an apple which has added abundantly to the wealth and comfort of the people of North Eastern America.  To know this apple is to appreciate its great beauty and its surpassing fine quality.  But one should have it grown in the islands of Lake Champlain or in Western Quebec to secure it in all its glowing beauty and in all its crisp lusciousness.  You have no doubt guessed ere this that there is only one apple meriting this description La Belle Fameuse.  Quebec Tradition – because precise history fails – tells us that the Fameuse came to us with the advent of the Norman colonists.  It is the characteristic apple of the upper St Lawrence valley and I might add of the Lake Champlain region.  Fruit growing in the Province began as no doubt it did in New England with the growing of seedling fruits in the gardens of those who had brought with them from the old land a love of horticulture. The early gardens of Quebec and Montreal were famous for their collections of apples and even of pears. From these early plantings many varieties of some local fame have originated.  In addition to the Fameuse and its large seedling progeny might be mentioned St Lawrence, Pomme de fer, and Canada Baldwin.” 2