Category Archives: Pomme Fruit

1899: Vintage Herefordshire Apples, and “French sorts”

Rackham Pomona

A committee composed of members of the Herefordshire Fruit-Growers’ Association and of the Fruit and Chrysanthemum Society was appointed in 1899 to make a selection of vintage apples and pears best suited to Herefordshire and the districts adjoining.

The following is the list drawn up by the committee:

The Apples:

Old Foxwhelp 
Cherry Pearmain
Cowarne Red
Dymock Red
Eggleton Styre
Kingston Black or Black Taunton
Skyrme’s Kernel
Spreading Redstreak
Carrion Apple
Cherry Norman
Cummy Norman
Royal Wilding
Handsome Norman
Strawberry Norman
White Bache or Norman
Broad-leaved Norman
 
and
 
Argile Grise
Bramtot
De Boutville
Frequin Audievre
Medaille d’Or
 
These last five being “French sorts” introduced from Normandy about 1880, and now established in the orchards of Herefordshire.

Adapted from an online version of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica – Article: CIDER, or CYDER (from the Fr. cidre, derived from the Lat. sicera or cisera, Gr. mucepa, Heb. shade, strong drink)

Read more here: CIDER, or CYDER 

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Apples Stories : Apples of North America by Tom Burford

Apples of North America: 192 Exceptional Varieties for Gardeners, Growers and Cooks by Tom Burford.

Truly an essential resource for anyone interested in learning more about America’s national fruit.

It’s handy to have handy – as a quick reference when we encounter new and unknown apples, when eating in-hand or while cider sampling. What is this apples history, how was it named, where is it from, can I bake with it, what is it’s flavor profile? So many questions, and Mr. Burford has the answer to 192 varieties.

Just flip through the pages to learn about the vast diversity of apples still available, if we only seek them out.

 

Timberpress.com

Preview the book here via Google and Timber Press.

Read more about Tom Burford here:

Professor Apple: How Tom Burford sowed the seeds of the Virginia hard cider revival. by Giles Morris, 2009

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Celebrating 200 Years of the Historic Fort Ross Orchard

Fort Ross1383074_232226773603226_180268532_n

Photograph by Paul C. Miller, courtesy of Fort Ross Conservancy

Where & When:

Fort Ross State Historic Park
19005 Coast Hwy
JennerCA 95450

Saturday, April 12, 2014 from 10:00 AM to 3:30 PM (PDT)

Event Details:

In 1814, the Russians at Fort Ross began their orchard by planting a peach tree. They and the ranchers who followed planted trees and harvested fruit from the site for over 150 years, and a number of historic trees still survive today.

In celebration of the historic Fort Ross orchard’s 200th anniversary, Fort Ross Conservancy is hosting a conference on orchards and orchard management. Lectures by experts from the National Park Service and California State Parks will discuss the history of orchards, historic orchard care, and tree preservation. A tour of the Fort Ross orchard will follow, with an opportunity to discuss recent management at the site.

The Fort Ross orchard was planted by the Russians in 1814 and several trees from the mid 1800s are still living, including two Russian-era cherry trees. This conference celebrates the 200th anniversary of the historic orchards at Fort Ross. Conference speakers include:

  • Susan Dolan, Park Cultural Landscapes Program Manager with National Park Service, will provide an overview of the history of orchards, and discuss basic techniques in orchard stabilization,
  • Jan Wooley, Historic Preservationist with California State Parks, will discuss orchards and ongoing work within the California State Parks System,
  • Susan Rudy, Fort Ross Conservancy Advisor and lead orchard volunteer, will describe the history and ongoing care of the Fort Ross orchard,
  • Amigo Bob Cantisano (tentative) will discus the Felix Gillet Historic Orchard Project. This organization identifies, preserves, and propagates the best varieties of fruit and nut trees still thriving in the mining camps, farms, homesteads and towns of the Sierra that were introduced by Felix Gillet, of Nevada City, Calfiornia, in 1871.

Schedule for the Day

  • 10am – 1pm    Lecture/Presentations in the Fort Ross Visitor Center auditorium
  • 1:30-2:30        Lunch at the orchard
  • 2:30-3:30        Historic Fort Ross Orchard tour
  • 4pm                Optional tour of the Fort Ross Historic Compound.

Special event fees apply:

$10 per person for conference and historic orchard tour.
*plus* California State Parks entrance fee of $8 per car when parking at Fort Ross. (Please carpool!)

Optional boxed lunch delivered to the orchard: $15/ person, advanced purchase only.
Or you are welcome to bring your own picnic lunch!

visit-s

For more information on the Fort Ross historic orchard visit the Orchard webpage.

Link: www.fortross.org

Tickets & event details available at:
https://www.eventbrite.com/e/celebrating-200-years-of-the-historic-fortross-orchard-tickets-10786062403

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Photograph by Paul C. Miller, courtesy of Fort Ross Conservancy

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Photograph by Paul C. Miller, courtesy of Fort Ross Conservancy

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Photograph by Paul C. Miller, courtesy of Fort Ross Conservancy

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Photograph by Paul C. Miller, courtesy of Fort Ross Conservancy

All photos by Paul C. Miller, courtesy of Fort Ross Conservancy

Map courtesy of Fort Ross Conservancy

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Why do we need so many kinds of apples?

Apples in a crate at Albemarle Cider Works Vintage Virginia Apples

“Why do we need so many kinds of apples?

Because there are so many folks. A person has a right to gratify his legitimate tastes. If he wants twenty or forty kinds of apples for his personal use, running from Early Harvest to Roxbury Russet, he should be accorded the privilege. Some place should be provided where he may obtain trees or scions. There is merit in variety itself. It provides more points of contact with life, and leads away from uniformity and monotony.”
–Liberty Hyde Bailey, The Apple Tree, p. 68
(New York: Macmillan, 1922)

Celebrating America’s Unique Apple Diversity: Selected Literature

Special Reference Briefs Series

No. SRB 2010-02

Compiled by:
Rebecca Mazur and Katie Winkleblack
National Agricultural Library
Agricultural Research Service
U.S. Department of Agriculture
10301 Baltimore Avenue
Beltsville, MD 20705
agref@nal.usda.gov
http://www.nal.usda.gov

September 2010
Updated September 2011

“This bibliography is a selected compilation from the rich pool of information resources at the National Agricultural Library about heirloom apples. It consists of a list of books and reports at the Library dating prior to 1928, with the addition of later books which focus on the subject of varieties of apples grown in the American past. It is organized into sections first by date and then in order of the author’s last name.”

Link: http://www.nal.usda.gov/afsic/pubs/srb1002.shtml#1754

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Sneak Peek: September 2014: Apples of Uncommon Character by Rowan Jacobsen

9781620402276

Rowan Jacobsen

Apples of Uncommon Character

123 Heirlooms, Modern Classics, & Little-Known Wonders

(Plus 20 Sweet and Savory Recipes)

Bloomsbury, September 2014

Rowan Jacobsen: www.rowanjacobsen.com and @rowanjacobsen

Bloomsbury: www.bloomsbury.com

Photographer Clare Barboza (clarebarboza.com) shares a “visual sneak peek” from Uncommon Apples in her blog post a whole lotta apples.

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What We’re Reading: Pomona’s Harvest by H. Frederic Janson

Pomonas Harvest

Pomona’s Harvest: An Illustrated Chronicle of Antiquarian Fruit Literature by H. Frederic Janson, Timber Press, 1996.

From Timber Press:

“An intriguing history of books about fruit from antiquity to the Industrial Revolution, including many beautiful engravings from key works. The relationship of pomology to social history and the history of ideas is explored, and there is a bibliography describing more than 600 fruit-related sources.”

This is an extremely valuable resource for anyone interested in early pomological texts, and pomological illustration.

Currently available as a print-on-demand paperback from these online retailers: Amazon.comBarnes & NoblePowell’s.

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Wassail Day 1. We Salute Ye Olde Quince Trees.

Wassail Day 1. We Salute Ye Olde Quince Trees.

January 5th, 2014

The Plan: A visit to The Cloisters Museum to Wassail the 4 quince trees that live in the Bonnefont Cloister.

Capital detail Cruxa Cloister

The Wassail Implements: An empty soda can re-filled with dried beans – a bit of tape over the top to secure said beans, and a small travel-size plastic cosmetics bottle filled with 2 oz. of Etienne Dupont Cidre Bouché Brut de Normandy. Old World, New World Wassail To Go DIY Pocket Kit.*

The Cloisters Museum botanical collection includes pollarded crab apple trees, espaliered pears, exotic potted citrus fruits, and the famed quinces. Snowy conditions made it impossible to access the courtyards where the crab apples and quince reside, we could only view them through the frost-steamed windows of the Cruxa & Bonnefont Cloisters. We wished them a quiet Good Health and Good Fortune and vowed to return when the gardens were accessible in Spring.

A gallery talk, led by a knowledgeable and genial guide, focused on details of medieval life in the winter months, examining the seasonal feasting rituals and agricultural tasks that occupied the waking hours of medieval folk, including the varied wassailing traditions observed in the manor hall, monastery and village.

Pollarded crab apple trees Cruxa Cloister

Pollarded crab apple trees in Cruxa Cloister

Read about the fascinating “medieval technique of hard pruning, known as pollarding” in this article, Woodsman, Pollard That Tree.

*repurposed New Years noisemakers are a perfect addition to the DIY-Wassail To Go Kit.

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Wassail Day 1. Fortifying with Pear Brandy. Olmsted’s Sidecar Cocktail.

Wassail Day 1. Fortifying with Pear Brandy. Olmsted’s Sidecar Cocktail.

January 5, 2014.

The Plan: Locate and Wassail the four famous and beloved quince trees inside The Cloisters Museum at Fort Tryon Park.

As the site of the quince cloister garden IS in a museum – we reasoned our Wassail activities would need to be discrete, if not completely covert. The park was covered with snow, the air was frosty, and we decided a pre-Wassail ‘warming’ beverage to fortify ourselves was in order.

The New Leaf Restaurant & Bar, located in a 1930’s era rustic deco-medieval structure originally built as a concession stand for Fort Tryon Park, proved the perfect spot to enjoy a surprisingly tasty brunch and a Wassail-appropriate cocktail to launch the festivities.

Sidecar

The Cocktail: Olmstead’s Sidecar

Ingredients: Koval Organic Ginger Liqueur, pear cognac, and lemon.

Olmsted’s Sidecar is made with Koval organic ginger liqueur (produced by a craft distillery in Chicago and hand bottled), pear cognac and lemon. Named for Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., the landscape architect who planned Fort Tryon Park, which was completed in 1935. He is the son of the designer of Central Park.”

New Leaf Restaurant & Bar newleafrestaurant.com

“New Leaf is an enterprise of the non-profit New York Restoration Project (NYRP). All net proceeds support NYRP’s mission of creating a greener, more sustainable NYC. Learn more at www.nyrp.org.”

KOVAL Distillery www.koval-distillery.com

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These Days of Wassailing

POM00001121

Hello Friends of Cider!  Join us in embracing Wassail in 2014.

We’re observing North American celebrations from January 5th to January 17th, 2014*, from ‘New’ 12th Night Eve to ‘Old’ 12th Night.

Our Goals for The 2014 Wassail: Explore Old & New World Wassail Traditions, Salute The Orchard, Honor The Apple, and Celebrate With Cider.

How are WE Wassailing? To being the festivities, January 5th, 2014, we visited “the four beloved quinces at the Cloisters Museum and Gardens, along the Hudson River in Fort Tryon Park.” The Wassail did not go as planned, but Pomona surprised us with an amazing Wassail Wonder.

Read more about the New York Quinces in this piece In Praise of the Misunderstood Quince by By Michael Tortorello, published May 2, 2012 in the New York Times.

*Note: Our Wassailing activities are likely to continue throughout the month of January 2014, yours can too!

Image: Specimen 8168   Artist: Prestele, William Henry, 1838-1895

Scientific name: Cydonia oblonga  Common name: quinces  Variety: Bourgeat

Source: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”

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Smith, Jones, Plumb and Penn.

Smith, Jones, Plumb and Penn. Cider Apples of Yesteryear.

The National Agricultural Library’s collection of pomological watercolor illustrations includes images of cider apples of renown such as the Harrison, Virginia or Hewe’s Crab, Ablemarle and Newtown Pippins.

Also documented by the artists working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Division of Pomology are less well-known American cider apples such as the Smith Cider,  Jones Cider, Plumb Cider and the Penn Cider.

Image credit: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”

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Malus domestica: Smith Cider, Rosslyn, Arlington County, Virginia, 1932

Malus domestica: Smith Cider

Malus domestica: Smith Cider

Malus domestica: Smith Cider

Artist:
Arnold, Mary Daisy, ca. 1873-1955
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Smith Cider
Geographic origin:
Rosslyn, Arlington County, Virginia, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
112350
Year:
1932
Notes on original:
Section J, Row 17, Tree 3
Date created:
1932-01-30
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Gleanings: On Apples, Terroir, and Newark Cider.

Trained&PrunedAppleTreeNewark Cider .

Gleanings: On Apples, Terroir, and Newark Cider.

Concerning Newark’s famous old time cider the following specific information on the ingredients thereof will be new and of interest to many readers. Our informant was the late John Oakes of Bloomfield. He said some time ago:

“Quite a large portion of the land in Bloomfield in the last century, the eighteenth and the first third of this the nineteenth, was in farms. They were small, comparatively few of more than fifty acres. The farmers raised on the land rye, oats, Indian corn, potatoes, and buckwheat; very little wheat and hay. They had large orchards of apples for making cider which under the name of ‘Newark cider’ was known over a large extent of country, shipped to the South, as well as to points in these parts. It was celebrated as the best. It was made the best from two kinds of apples mixed, two-thirds being Harrison apples, which were small and a light yellow color, a little tart and very juicy; and one third being the Canfield apple, large, red and sweet, both seedlings having originated here.”

Thus Newark cider was the product of Newark fruit and Newark invention. -JFF

Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, Volume 3 . New Jersey Historical Society, 1918 – New Jersey.

Trained&PrunedAppleTree

And this from: History of Essex and Hudson Counties, New Jersey, Volume 1. Everts & Peck, 1884 – Essex County (N.J.)
“The apple was planted extensively soon after the settlement, on a wide range of the cleared land.  As early as 1682, Governor Carteret, writing to the proprietors in England said
“At Newark is made great quantities of cider, exceeding any that we have from New England, Rhode Island or Long Island”.
The high quality of Newark cider has been maintained from then until now.
The red clay soil, the debris of the red sandstone, has been congenial to the growth and fine quality of the apple and pear; in fact there is no part of the State of New Jersey where fruit is superior to that grown in the county of Essex, and where the soil has been properly tilled and fertilized, agricultural products have always met the expectations of the cultivator.”
Trained&PrunedAppleTree

And from: The Western Agriculturist, and Practical Farmer’s Guide. Robinson and Fairbank, 1830. Nicholas Longworth Esq. – of the famed Catawaba wines of Ohio, a man considered the father of American grape culture – writes that the Harrison, Campfield, and Graniwinkle

“are the apples from which the celebrated Newark cider is made.”

Longworth experimented growing Harrison and Virginia crab apples in Ohio for cider, but he failed to achieve a wholly successful result, and details his effort thus:

“I obtained from Newark, New Jersey, many years since, some trees of the Harrison apple from which their celebrated cider is made. The cider I made from them was aqueous and seldom retains its sweetness till the proper season for bottling.

The best Newark cider is made on the Newark mountains on a poor stony soil.

On a recent visit to that state I particularly examined this apple in their orchards to endeavour to ascertain the difference. I found the apples knotty, and of a less size than the same fruit in the West, unfit for the table but evidently possessing more of the saccharine principle. The Virginia crab retains all its fine cider qualities with us in great perfection. No soil, no climate. no cultivation can make it edible. To reconcile these apparent contradictions writers have furnished us with no clue and we must endeavour to deduce them from analogy and reason.”

Trained&PrunedAppleTree

Proceedings Of The Farmers Club

APPLE GRAFTS

Mr Daniel B. Bruen, Newark, N. J. now brought forward a of cions of the apple, and read in connection therewith a report, of which the following is the substance:

This is the Harrison apple; its origin is in Orange, Essex county, N. J. and named after Simeon Harrison, owner of the farm. It is the most celebrated cider known. It bears large crops, fruit small. Eight bushels produce one barrel of cider; it is very rich in saccharine matter. This, the Campfield apple, has its origin in Newark, named after Matthew Campfield, one of the first settlers of Newark, almost universally used in the proportion of one-third with the Harrison in manufacturing the celebrated Newark cider. The fruit is rich in saccharine matter, and keeps well until spring; good for cooking, very little better for table use than a well-soaked cork from cider bottle.

Annual Report of the American Institute, of the City of New York. American Institute of the City of New York, 1869.

Resources: 
Search books.google.com and archive.org for more interesting cider and pomological information.
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Saving Apples by Making Cider. Drink a Gravenstein Today.

Gravenstein

Pomme Fruit: Gravenstein Apples In The Russian River Valley, Sonoma County, California.

The Sebastopol Gravenstein, a vividly colored, aromatic, flavorful heirloom apple is historically important in the Russian River Valley. So dominant in the region, the ribbon of roadway running through the acres of orchards became known as The Gravenstein Highway – honoring the apples prolific presence. Declining prices for processing apples, the increasing popularity of other more ‘commercially viable’ apples, and a booming West Coast wine industry, all led to Gravenstein orchards being ripped out to make way for the extremely lucrative wine grapes that now populate the region.

David Karp, writing for the LA Times:

“Gravenstein is still a favorite in northern Europe and is cultivated from Nova Scotia to the Pacific Northwest, but it reaches its greatest perfection in the Sebastopol district of western Sonoma County, at the border of the maritime and inland climatic zones, where the morning fog gives way to a moderately hot afternoon sun. The area’s fine, sandy loam soil is well suited to apples. The huge trees, grafted on seedling rootstock, develop roots deep enough to survive the dry summers without irrigation.”

Concerned Sonoma County cider makers are working to revive interest in this heirloom apple by focusing on the Gravenstein’s many desirable cider worthy traits, crafting ‘Gravs’ into unique ciders that celebrate and express the heritage of the apple and the region.

Saving Apples by Making Cider. Drink a Gravenstein Today.

Find A Gravenstein Cider:

Tilted Shed Ciderworks: Graviva! Semi Dry Cider

Apple Sauced Cider: Save The Gravenstein! Cider

Devoto Orchards Cider: Gravenstein first release October 14, 2013

Gleanings (sources for further reading):

LATimes: The future of Gravenstein apples hangs on a thin stem by David Karp

NPR: Gravenstein Apples: The End Of Summer In A Fruit by Nicole SpIridakis

Zester Daily: The Fight To Save Sonoma’s Gravenstein Apple by Tina Caputo

Slow Food USA Ark of Taste: Sebastopol Gravenstein

Slow Food USA Sebastopol Gravenstein Apple Presidia

Gravenstein apple image (detail) – credit: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”

Link: The future of Gravenstein apples hangs on a thin stem. July 12, 2013 By David Karp. Special to the Los Angeles Times

 

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Pomme Fruit: The Harrison Apple. 2 Views: circa 1817 and 1899.

Circa 1817 image (left)  from the unpublished atlas of Wm. Coxe. Illustration executed by one of Mr. Coxe’s daughters, possibly Elizabeth (Coxe) McMurtrie.

Image Credit: Special Collections, National Agricultural Library.

1899 image (right) painted by Deborah Griscom Passmore, an illustrator for the USDA.

Image credit : “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705″

http://usdawatercolors.nal.usda.gov/

 

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“Water colors with wonderful fidelity to nature and with such delicacy of touch and such genuine artistic sense of color”

According to a letter to the Editor (extract presented below) of The Country Gentleman, from Mr. E. L. R. of Baltimore, Md:

Mr William Coxe was for several years a member of Congress from New Jersey but such was his fondness for pomology that notwithstanding the many demands upon his time in consequence of his political and other pursuits he still found leisure to collect materials for an enlarged and elegant edition of his work on Fruit Trees.

This unfortunately, he did not live to bring to perfection. It had been his intention that the second edition should have contained beautiful colored engravings to accompany the descriptions of each of the fruits mentioned in his book. For this purpose his daughter, Mrs McMurtrie still living in Philadelphia, and her accomplished sisters had prepared numerous accurate drawings of life size upon Bristol board of the fruits to be represented and then painted them in water colors with wonderful fidelity to nature and with such delicacy of touch and such genuine artistic sense of color that it is greatly to be regretted that these evidences of early American art have not seen the light in the form originally intended.

source: The Country Gentleman, Volume 9 via Google eBook

L. Tucker, 1857

A journal for the farm, the garden, and the fireside, devoted to improvement in agriculture, horticulture, and rural taste; to elevation in mental, moral, and social character, and the spread of useful knowledge and current news.
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A bit about William Coxe:
William Coxe wrote the first book on American pomology, A View of the Cultivation of Fruit Trees, and the Management of Orchards and Cider published in 1817. This seminal work can be read online via google books and archive.org.
The watercolor pomological illustrations presented here are from an unpublished atlas of apples that is in manuscripts collection of USDA National Agricultural Library.

Collection Number: 44 Collection Name: Coxe, William, Manuscript

William Coxe also had a “national reputation for his cider, at an age when it was a famous and characteristic beverage this according to Proceedings of the State Horticultural Society at Its Annual Session, Volume 42 , New Jersey State Horticultural Society, 1917.
For all additional information on William Coxe published on this blog, look here.

 

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Other Pome Fruits: Pears and Quince Considered

bosc6_med

Other Pome Fruits: Pears and Quince Considered.

American cider makers are exploring cider beyond the apple. Pears, and even Quince, can be crafted into quite fine ciders. Along with our ongoing apple based cider research, upcoming posts will consider these other pome fruits, and the unique ciders, perrys and poires their artful fermentation produces.

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Pyrus communis: : Bon Chretien de Vernois Pear

POM00006904.BonChretienPear

Pyrus communis: : Bon Chretien de Vernois Pear

Artist:
Steadman, Royal Charles, b. 1875
Scientific name:
Pyrus communis
Common name:
pears
Variety:
Bon Chretien de Vernois
Geographic origin:
Saint Petersburg, Pinellas County, Florida, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
95913
Year:
1918
Notes on original:
Martin Compas
Date created:
1918-09-27
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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(Early) American Cider Apples From DANIEL SMITH and CO. Nursery, Burlington, New Jersey 18o4

Agricultural.

Extract.

From The Trenton Federalist.
1803
One of the best opportunities for improving their plantations with choice fruit is now offered to the farmers in this part country, by the opening of the extensive nursery of Daniel Smith & Co. of Burlington, for the sale of trees. This nursery has been many years in  forming is certainly one of the grandest collections of choice trees in the United States. No expense nor pains have been spared to make the collection complete, and the taking bids fair to produce the greatest benefits to the agricultural interests of West Jersey. 1
danielsmithfruittreecatalogue1804-s

Below is a list of (early) American Cider Apples from DANIEL SMITH & CO. of Burlington, New Jersey, circulated as a broadsheet catalog for apple trees available in the fall of 18o4.

AMERICAN CIDER APPLES.
Note:
“The letter S. denotes the Trees of that kind being smaller than the others. C. denotes Cyder Fruit.”
  • APPLES.
  • 1 Large Newtown pippins
  • 2 Cooper’s russeting C.
  • 3 Michael-Henry
  • 4 Shippen’s russeting or Newark gate
  • 5 Summer queen
  • 6 White calville
  • 7 Reinette grise
  • 8 Sweet and sour
  • 9 Hunt’s green Newtown pippin
  • 11 Newark or French yellow pippin
  • 12 Redling
  • 13 Stockton’s early
  • 15 Large red and green sweeting
  • 16 Large early harvest
  • 17 Monstrous pippin
  • 18 Large piplin
  • 19 Golden pippin
  • 20 Everlasting apple
  • 21 Lady apple or Pomme d’Apis
  • 22 Doctor apple
  • 23 English codling
  • 24 Swett’s harvest
  • 25 Early junating
  • 26 Belle fleur
  • 27 Orange apple
  • 28 Black apple
  • 29 Hewes’s crab C.
  • 30 Wine sop
  • 31 Early bough apple
  • 32 Harrison apple C.
  • 33 Maiden’s blush
  • 34 Fall pippin
  • 35 Campfield’s apple C.
  • 36 Morgan’s apple
  • 37 Little early reinette
  • 38 White’s early pearmain
  • 39 Wine apple
  • 43 Rhode-Island greening
  • 44 Roman stem
  • 45 Pennock’s red winter
  • 46 Brown’s winter
  • 47 Gilpin or carthouse
  • 48 American pippin
  • 49 Catline
  • 50 Rambour
  • 51 Winter queen
  • 52 Hays’s winter
  • 53 Lady finger S.
  • 55 Ruckman’s pearmain S.
  • 56 Flushing Spitzbergen
  • 57 Newtown do. S.
  • 58 Aesopus do.
  • 59 Jersey greening
  • 60 American nonpareil
  • 61 Quince apple
  • 62 Burlington late pearmain
  • 65 Priestly
  • 67 Greyhouse or romanite
  • 71 Grub’s summer
  • 76 Granny Winkle C.
  • 83 Burlington greening
  • 84 Red Calville
  • 85 Newark sweeting.
A catalogue of the fruit trees, &c. in the nursery of Daniel Smith and Co. Burlington, New Jersey, for sale in the fall of 1804 …. [Burlington, 1804].
Source: Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division.
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Heirloom Apples. New Amsterdam Market.

3 Apples Grav, Pitmaston, H.Nonesuch

New Amsterdam Market at the old Fulton Fish Market, on South Street and Peck Slip in Lower Manhattan, this Sunday, September 29th, featured regional cheese makers and dairy products. We could not resist these beautiful apples at the Flying Fox stall. Gravenstein, Pitmaston Pineapple, Hubbardston Nonesuch, diminutive Dolgo Crab, the charmingly named Famuese, to mention only a few, each more lovely than the next.

Grav, Pitmaston & Hubardston NAM

Support your local growers and farmers markets, and encourage fruit diversity by ‘eating it to save it’. Enjoy the seasons beautiful heritage pome fruits.

Dolgo-close

New Amsterdam Market www.newamsterdammarket.org:

“Since 2006, New Amsterdam Market has advocated for the preservation and rehabilitation of the Old Fulton Fish Market, a public-owned site of immense value for both cultural and economic development.”

Read more about the vision for the Seaport and the Market District here.

Flying Fox, fruit hand-picked and selected by fruiterer, Maggie Nescuir.

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Apple Belts of North America circa 1914.

LOC apple image

The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture:

Apple belts.

In comparing the great apple growing regions of the continent it is convenient to designate each by its leading variety. In the eastern part of the continent, there is the Fameuse or Wealthy belt on the north, the Ben Davis belt on the south, and the Baldwin belt lying intermediate between these two. It is seen that varieties differ greatly as to their adaptability to different regions. The degree of soil aeration and of soil moisture and the range of atmospheric and soil temperatures are among the most important determining factors of the geographical range of commercial apple growing with any variety. Passing westward into the mid continental region it is found that the Baldwin belt does not extend west of Lake Michigan. The climatic extremes are here too severe for that variety and many of its eastern associates of a similar degree of hardiness.

In all that vast territory which extends westward from the Great Lakes these varieties disappear and do not again appear till the states of the Pacific Coast are reached. Instead the Wealthy belt extends southward till it reaches the region where Wealthy yields leadership to Ben Davis. In this connection it is worthy of note that from the Atlantic Coast westward to the Missouri River, the north margin of the Ben Davis belt approximately coincides with the southern boundary of the geological area covered by the Wisconsin drift.

Wealthy belt.

The mid-continental territory in which Wealthy is generally speaking the leading variety includes northern Illinois, the north half of Iowa, and practically all of the apple growing districts of Wisconsin, Minnesota, South Dakota, and northern Nebraska. Among the more important varieties associated with it are for the more northern parts Oldenburg, Okabenal, Patten (Patten Greening) and Malinda. Among the very hardiest of the large size apples for the North are those of the Hibernal group, but their fruit is so austere that it is esteemed of little value except for culinary uses. In the southern part of the Wealthy belt are grown hardy varieties of more or less local value such as Salome, Windsor, Black Annette and Colorado Orange varieties which as yet have not established themselves in the great world markets but which are valued where better varieties cannot be satisfactorily grown.

Ben Davis belt.

Generally speaking, Ben Davis is the leading variety in central and southern Illinois, the south half of Iowa, and the apple growing districts of Arkansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas and the south half of Nebraska. With its close kin the Gano, and the Black Ben Davis which evidently are highly colored bud sports of Ben Davis. it probably produces at least one half of the commercial apple crop in this region. Winesap and Jonathan appear to be next in order of importance with Winesap perhaps in the lead. Other important varieties are Grimes, Rome Beauty, Willow (Twig), Missouri (Pippin), Minkler and Ralls. York Imperial is gaining ground Stayman Winesap is one of the newer kinds which will be more largely planted. Delicious also is attracting attention particularly because of its agreeable dessert quality and good appearance. The Stayman and Delicious are being planted to some extent in the southern part of the Wealthy belt as Jonathan and Grimes have been.

Page 325.

From:

The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture:

A Discussion for the Amateur, and the Professional and Commercial Grower, of the Kinds, Characteristics and Methods of Cultivation of the Species of Plants Grown in the Regions of the United States and Canada for Ornament, for Fancy, for Fruit and for Vegetables; with Keys to the Natural Families and Genera, Descriptions of the Horticultural Capabilities of the States and Provinces and Dependent Islands, and Sketches of Eminent Horticulturists, Volume 1

Edited by Liberty Hyde Bailey, Macmillan, 1914

Read or download a copy via google here.

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Malus domestica: Fameuse

POM00002208

Malus domestica: Fameuse

Artist:
Newton, Amanda Almira, ca. 1860-1943
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Fameuse
Geographic origin:
Wisconsin, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
99996
Year:
1921
Notes on original:
Exhibited at A.P.S. Meeting, Columbus, OH, Dec. 1-4, 1920
Date created:
1921
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Malus domestica: Wealthy

POM00003669

Malus domestica: Wealthy

Artist:
Schutt, Ellen Isham, 1873-1955
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Wealthy
Geographic origin:
Buffalo, Erie County, New York, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
NAL note:
Alternative variety name(s): Wealthy 251a, Wealthy 255b
Specimen:
33206; 33208
Year:
1904
Notes on original:
Negative Number 5342; 33206a – [Irog?] first picking. 33206b – 2 cultivation first picking
Date created:
1904
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Malus domestica: Baldwin

POM00001449

Malus domestica: Baldwin

Artist:
Arnold, Mary Daisy, ca. 1873-1955
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Baldwin
Geographic origin:
New Bedford, Bristol County, Massachusetts, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 16 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
79743; 79759
Year:
1915
Date created:
1915-01-11
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Malus domestica: Ben Davis

POM00000163

Malus domestica: Ben Davis

Artist:
Newton, Amanda Almira, ca. 1860-1943
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Ben Davis
Geographic origin:
Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
55896
Year:
1912
Date created:
1912-03-29
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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What We’re Reading : Apples of North America by Tom Burford

Apples of North America: 192 Exceptional Varieties for Gardeners, Growers and Cooks by Tom Burford.

An essential resource for anyone interested in learning more about America’s national fruit.

 

Timberpress.com

Preview the book here via Timber Press.

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Exploring APPLES and Collecting Cider: Virginia

Apple Tasting at Albemarle CiderWorks

Exploring Apples.

Our recent Cider (and Apple) Road Trip to Virginia sparked the desire to more actively explore apple varieties.

Becoming familiar with the unique qualities of individual apple varieties – through study and sampling – enhances the experience of drinking craft cider, allowing you to understand and taste how the fruit itself contributes to shaping a craft ciders’ profile.

Apple-centric highlights of our Virginia cider tour included:

A guided apple tasting at Vintage Virginia Apples/Albemarle CiderWorks, followed by orchard exploring to view the raw materials of cider still on the tree. Apples sampled and spied included: Dolgo, Hewes Crab, Pitmaston Pineapple, Razor Russet and Arkansas Black.

Charlotte and Chuck Shelton of Albemarle CiderWorks’ Virginia Cider Making demonstration tasting at The Heritage Harvest Festival at Monticello. Fresh pressed ‘sweet’ cider from Vintage Virginia Apples extracted via an antique manual cider press, and enjoyed in the midst of Thomas Jefferson’s restored experimental vegetable garden.

Three lively and informative workshops: Heirloom Apples & Artisanal Cheese TastingApple Varieties for Organic Orchards, and Apple Varieties for Cider & Pie Making with ‘Professor Apple’, the esteemed orchard consultant, apple educator and advocate – Tom Burford.

And of course, securing copies of Tom Burford’s new book, Apples of North America: 192 Exceptional Varieties for Gardeners, Growers, and Cooks.

Follow the links below for additional information about the annual Heritage Harvest Festival at Monticello, and this years workshops. Plan a visit in 2014.

Heritage Harvest Festival at Monticello

Virginia Cider Making
Chuck & Charlotte Shelton

Heirloom Apple & Artisanal Cheese Tasting
Tom Burford & Gail Hobbs-Page

Apple Varieties for Organic Orchards 
Tom Burford

Apple Varieties for Cider- & Pie-Making 
Tom Burford

 

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Malus domestica: Harrison

POM00002268

Malus domestica: Harrison

Artist:
Passmore, Deborah Griscom, 1840-1911
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Harrison
Geographic origin:
Sussex, Sussex County, New Jersey, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 16 x 25 cm.
NAL note:
Changed Deckertown to Sussex
Specimen:
18929
Year:
1899
Notes on original:
Prof. Ragan says this is the true Harrison (cider) of Coxe
Date created:
1899
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Malus domestica: Stayman Winesap

POM00002503

Malus domestica: Stayman Winesap

Artist:
Newton, Amanda Almira, ca. 1860-1943
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Stayman Winesap
Geographic origin:
Winchester, Virginia, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 16 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
60433
Year:
1913
Date created:
1913-01-09
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Malus domestica: Arkansas Black

POM00000982

Malus domestica: Arkansas Black

Artist:
Steadman, Royal Charles, b. 1875
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Arkansas Black
Geographic origin:
Rosslyn, Arlington County, Virginia, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
99704
Year:
1921
Date created:
1921
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Malus domestica: Smokehouse

POM00003336

Artist:
Steadman, Royal Charles, b. 1875
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Smokehouse
Geographic origin:
Rosslyn, Arlington County, Virginia, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
103682b
Year:
1923
Date created:
1923-10-11
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Malus domestica: Grimes Golden

POM00002200

Malus domestica: Grimes Golden

Artist:
Arnold, Mary Daisy, ca. 1873-1955
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Grimes Golden
Geographic origin:
Winchester, Virginia, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
110478
Year:
1928
Date created:
1928-10-13
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Malus: Hewes

POM00003580-1

Malus: Hewes

Artist:
Arnold, Mary Daisy, ca. 1873-1955
Scientific name:
Malus
Common name:
crab apple
Variety:
Hewes
Geographic origin:
Rosslyn, Arlington County, Virginia, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
NAL note:
Alternative variety name(s): Hewes Crab
Specimen:
109587
Notes on original:
Accession Number 10874; Section K, Row 23, Tree 2; Picked 10/04/1927
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Malus domestica: Yellow Newtown (Albemarle Pippin)

POM00000527

Malus domestica: Yellow Newtown

Artist:
Passmore, Deborah Griscom, 1840-1911
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Yellow Newtown
Geographic origin:
Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.

NAL note:

Alternative variety name(s): Albemarle Pippin; Charlottesville is an independent city located adjacent to Albemarle County

Specimen:
32783
Year:
1904
Date created:
1904
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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A Few Virginia Apples.

A few Virginia apples from our recent Virginia Cider Road Trip. We talked apples, walked orchards, tasted apples, and sampled Virginia ciders. Expect more posts about the details of our Virginia Cider Road Trip in the coming days.

These are just a few of Virginia apples we encountered in our travels:

Albemarle Pippin, Hewes Crab, Grimes Golden, Stayman Winesap, Arkansas Black, Smokehouse, and Harrison

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Malus domestica: Golden Russet. 1905, Arlington, Dutchess County, New York, United States

POM00001881

Malus domestica: Golden Russet

Artist:
Passmore, Deborah Griscom, 1840-1911
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Golden Russet
Geographic origin:
Arlington, Dutchess County, New York, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
33402
Year:
1905
Notes on original:
Golden Russet of NY
Date created:
1905-02-27
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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Aymak Djangaliev and Les Origines de la Pomme: A film by Catherine Peix

Les Origines de la Pomme

Documentary Film. In French.

Directed by: Catherine Peix   Written by: Catherine Peix

Produced by: Seppia, Kri-Kor Films   Website: Seppia   From the website:

“The film takes us into the mountains of Tian Shan in Kazakhstan where the first apple trees were born, 165 million years ago. Called Malus sieversii, they grow in thick forests of trees, all different from each other, some of them being three hundred years old and sometimes more than thirty meters high. Edible and delicious, in its shapes and colours, the wild apple Malus sieversii has this special characteristic of being naturally resistant to the traditional pathogens of the domestic apple, including apple scab.

Through a scientific and historical investigation, the film chronicles the life of a Kazakh scholar, Aymak Djangaliev, who devoted himself to studying and protecting this unique world heritage. It also highlights the contemporary issues brought up by the discovery of the apple of origins. Malus sieversii offers the possibility of a new fruit tree growing, requiring no pesticides: it represents a biodiversity which is essential to protect for the future generations.”

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Gleanings: Tian Shan: The Fatherland of Apples + Sweet Pilgrimage

POM00007358

Two informative articles about the wild apples of Tian Shan: The story of ancestral apples –Malus sieversii – and the great diversity occurring in the regions of Almaty, Kazakhstan, considered to be the birthplace of the apple.

Sweet Pilgrimage: Two British Apple Growers in the Tian Shan

by John Selborne

“Central Asia’s wild fruit forests are not only home to the ancestor of all domestic apples, but also hold the key to the future of apple breeding worldwide”

Published in Steppe, Issue 9, 2011. Available online.

The Fatherland of Apples

The origins of a favorite fruit and the race to save its native habitat.

By Gary Paul Nabhan

Published in the May/June 2008 issue of Orion magazine and available online.

“THE FRAGRANCE of the forest is unlike any I have ever known. The smell of ripening and rotting apples and pears fills my nostrils. At my feet, russet reds, blushing pinks, vibrant roses, and creamy yellows mottle the ground, where wildlife has half-consumed the wild fruit that makes this Kazakh forest so bountiful.”

Gary Paul Nabhan’s essay in Orion magazine is adapted from his book, Where Our Food Comes From, by Island Press, 2008

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Malus: Wild Apples of the Caucasus

Wild Apples of the Caucasus  pomological watercolor illustrations from The National Agricultural Library.

Image source: U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705

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Apple Sauced Cider’s Backyard Cider To Benefit Slow Food Russian River Apple Core Project

APPLE SAUCED LOGO

Date: March 19, 2013
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

Sebastopol Cider Makers Rescue Backyard Apples for Charity

Sebastopol, CA (March 19, 2013) – Apple Sauced Cider™, a Sebastopol-grown cidery, is seeking local residents to donate apples from their backyard for a community cider blend called “Backyard” cider. Apple Sauced Cider will donate 100% of the profits from this batch of cider to Slow Food Russian River and its Apple Core project, which is responsible for raising awareness of and preserving the county’s apple heritage through marketing the region.

About “Backyard” Cider

As members of Slow Food Russian River and apple growers themselves, Hunter and Jolie Wade of Sebastopol’s Apple Sauced Cider aim to engage community members and give back by producing a “backyard” cider, a true expression of Sebastopol’s unique flavors. The cidery is looking for Sebastopol residents’ backyard apples to be donated and blended into a community cider. In the middle of August, the cidery invites all those who can donate to drop off early-season apple varieties, including gravensteins and others, into large bins at Devoto Gardens and Orchards in Sebastopol (Date TBA). The apples will be washed, pressed, fermented, and bottled by Apple Sauced Cider™ . The cidery will then donate 100% of the profits from this batch.

Continue reading

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What We’re Reading: Apples by Roger Yepsen

9780393036909_300

An extremely informative and charming small format book of deft watercolor illustrations and profiles of 90 apple varieties, Roger Yepsen’s Apples includes a concise overview of apple and cider history, recipes, Apple Argot, and simple how to make your own cider instructions.

See Inside the Book for a preview.

www.rogeryepsen.com

books.wwnorton.com 

Details: Hardcover, September 1994, ISBN 978-0-393-03690-9, 5.4 × 6.4 in / 255 pages

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Malus domestica: Red Gravenstein, 1929. Rosslyn, Arlington County, Virginia, United States

POM00003063

Malus domestica: Red Gravenstein

Artist:
Steadman, Royal Charles, b. 1875
Scientific name:
Malus domestica
Common name:
apples
Variety:
Red Gravenstein
Geographic origin:
Rosslyn, Arlington County, Virginia, United States
Physical description:
1 art original : col. ; 17 x 25 cm.
Specimen:
111014
Year:
1929
Notes on original:
Section J, Row 25, Tree 3; Picked 07/23/1929
Date created:
1929-08-07
Rights:
Use of the images in the U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection is not restricted, but a statement of attribution is required. Please use the following attribution statement: “U.S. Department of Agriculture Pomological Watercolor Collection. Rare and Special Collections, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, MD 20705”
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